Mothers of autistic children in crisis. The need for better services

In the UK and in other counties, public services are being cut. The cuts are made  to decrease national debts and to cut taxation because political parties want to be seen as making tax cuts to win over voters. Cuts in services have the greatest impact on the most vulnerable people. Amongst these are the mothers of  those severely autistic children. whose behaviour is challenging Fortunately few mothers end up in such crises that they kill or attempt to kill their child, but many live in fear of aggression and with too little support. The father of the child is often absent from their lives.

This post is to highlight two things:

  • the need for good educational and behavioural management services for autistic children from the time they are very young. These services decrease the frequency and severity of behaviour which will become increasingly difficult to manage as the child gets bigger;
  • the need for effective  support, respite and residential services for young people and adults whose needs are greater than their families can provide.

Without these services more tragedies will happen. Some will be dramatic, others the undramatic dreading of each new day.

I was told my autistic son exhausted all the services when he was a teen, including the state mental institution after which he was returned home to my care. At times I feared for my life. I feared for the lives of my other children. I was only told my son had failed all the services my county had to offer and that I should call the police when he became violent’


 

A 6-year-old autistic child from Newport, Oregon, died after his mother, Jillian McCabe, allegedly threw him off of the Yaquina Bay Bridge. McCabe called police Monday night and admitted she had killed her son London McCabe, and the boy’s body was discovered in Yaquina Bay shortly afterwards. Jillian McCabe, 34, of Seal Rock appeared in Lincoln County Circuit Court  for a preliminary hearing on charges of aggravated murder, murder and first- and second-degree manslaughter. A motion is expected to be filed later by Jillian McCabe’s attorneys to request a determination on her fitness to proceed, court records show.


 

Kelli Stapleton pleaded guilty to trying to kill her child by carbon monoxide poisoning, and was sentenced to between 10 and 22 years in prison. She has previously  blogged about her struggles with care and treatment for her daughter, Isabelle, She pleaded guilty to shutting herself and her daughter, then 14, in a closed van with two lighted charcoal grills. Although found unconscious, both recovered.  The plea to a charge of first-degree child abuse averted a trial for murder and led to a three-day sentencing hearing. Supporters urged leniency for their friend who, they and Stapleton’s former husband have said, was beaten and hospitalised as a result of her daughter’s increasingly violent outbursts.


Gigi Jordan was convicted of manslaughter in the first degree for giving her 8-year-old son Jude, who suffered from autism, a fatal dose of prescription pills . She faces 5 to 25 years in prison. Her defence team managed to convince the jury with a strange tale, claiming Jordan had been trying “to save [Jude] from a life of sexual torture” at the hands of his birth father. Jordan said her husband at the time was plotting her murder, and she didn’t want the boy to end up back with his abuser. Both men denied the allegations. The prosecution argued that Jordan killed her son, who was nearly non-verbal, because of his severe autism.


 

‘You guys do not have a clue. I want to kill my son! Yes I want to get help but let’s be real there is no real help any more. There is no help because there is no money in our agencies to help. Thank you all who keeps the tax cut stuff going. You have destroyed the safety net for people with mental illness. The only treatment I have been able to find for my 29 year old son is a day program that offers some group therapy. For me it’s just a babysitting service. My son is mentally ill, autistic, and mildly retarded with rage issues. He is 6′ and 240 lbs. He is mean.. My family has  drifted away because of his behaviour. I am in fear of my own safety. So yes I want him dead or gone. I have even thought about putting him out on the street in an unsafe area of a major city near me and just let the streets take care of him. He will piss off the wrong  person and he will be dead.’


 

 Health officials say the murder-suicide of a Canadian mother and her autistic son should serve as a wake-up call that drastic changes need to be made within the system.The bodies of 40-year-old Angie Robinson and her 16-year-old son Robert were found inside their home in Prince Rupert, British Colombia.Robert could not speak and would often express his frustration by head-butting walls and people and pushing and shoving his mother.A suicide note left  and her final Facebook post, showed his mother  felt she could longer manage  Robert and that Family Services could not provide adequate support.

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Causes of learning disabilities and their impact on health

The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined learning disabilities as a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind. Somebody with a general learning disability is said to have a significant impairment of intellectual, adaptive and social functioning. A learning disability is not acquired in adulthood and is evident from childhood.

The term general learning disability has now been recommended in the UK to replace terms such as mental handicap or mental retardation. A child with a general learning disability or intellectual impairment finds it more difficult to learn, understand and do things compared with other children of the same age. The degree of disability can vary greatly, being classified as mild, moderate, severe or profound.

General learning disability is different from from specific learning difficulty such as dyslexia which means that the person has one difficulty such as in reading, writing but has no problem with learning in other areas.  It is characterised by generally poor performance in tasks such as learning, short-term memory and problem solving.

People with intellectual disabilities have an increased prevalence of health problems and their health needs are often unrecognised and unmet. For example, anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of the major mental illnesses and are present in 15–20% of the population but for people with intellectual disability, the prevalence of anxiety disorders has been shown to be much higher, particularly for hose with a mild to moderate intellectual disability. This is likely to be because they are aware that they are functioning less well than other people and because they find it significantly harder than others to cope with the demands of everyday life Anxiety disorders in people with intellectual disability can often be overlooked. Communication difficulties may make it harder for the person to describe their feelings and fears. Their difficulties may result in aggressive or destructive behaviour when they find situations difficult to cope with or are trying to avoid something which they find stressful

Although life expectancy is increasing, with people with mild learning disabilities approaching that of the general population, the mortality rates among people with moderate to severe learning disabilities are three times higher than in the general population, possibly due either to the impact of the cause of the disability, complex additional physical difficulties or because of less effective health care than the general population. The median age at death for people with learning disabilities is about 25 years younger than for those who do not have learning disabilities.

A classification of mild, moderate, severe and profound has been used to describe the degree of learning disability. However, this classification is in many ways inappropriate because each person with general learning disability must be assessed and treated as an individual. A person’s degree of intellectual impairment provides very little information about a person’s social, educational and personal needs, and the kind of help and support

About 2% of the population is estimated to have an intellectual impairment. It has been estimated that 1,191,000 people had learning disabilities in England in 2011, including: 286,000 children (180,000 boys, 106,000 girls) aged 0-17. As all children are assessed and monitored in infancy and all children attend school, it is likely that all or almost all of these children are receiving services to support them and their families

However of the 905,000 adults aged 18+ (530,000 men and 375,000 women), estimated to have an intellectual impairment only 189,000 (21%) are known to learning disabilities services. This means that the vast majority of adults with an intellectual impairment are not receiving services which would provide support for them and their families

The population for people with learning disabilities shows a sharp reduction in prevalence rates after age 49 due to reduced life expectancy. A sharp increase in prevalence for those under 20 may reflect increased survival rates among more severely disabled children.

The number of people with intellectual disabilities increased by 53% over the 35-year period from 1960 to 1995 as a result of improvements in socio-economic conditions, medical  care  and access to services for children

The causes of intellectual impairment include:

Genetic disorders such as Down’s syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome and Turner syndrome

Metabolic disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease) and Hurler’s syndrome.

Nutritional deficiency such as iodine deficiency.

Damage caused before the child is born by infections such as rubella; or by drugs or alcohol.

Damage caused during labour by prolonged labour, trauma, and deprivation of oxygen

Accidental or non-accidental injury, severe infections, poisoning or malnutrition   in infancy or childhood

For many people with an intellectual impairment there is no known cause

Autism spectrum disorders, sexuality and relationships

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are social communication difficulties which affect a person’s ability to understand socially appropriate behaviour. Therefore individuals with the condition are not necessarily aware, of or constrained by, the social rules which are observed by those who do not have an ASD. This presents difficulties for their development of sexual identity, sexual orientation and generally accepted sexual behaviours. These difficulties in turn influence the individual’s opportunity and availability for romantic and intimate relationships. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder typically have few or no friends and find it difficult to understand or follow the unwritten rules of sexual and relationship behaviour. They may engage in unacceptable behaviours in attempting to initiate romantic relationships and persist in pursuing a relationship even when it is very clear that the other person is not interested. This may lead to allegations of pestering, inappropriate physical contact or stalking.

People who have an ASD also have difficulties seeing situations from another person’s point of view. This can mean that they are unable to consider another person’s feelings, or they may think this person feels the same way as they do. For example, an individual with an ASD may have seen people kissing in the street; later they might approach someone they like, either someone known to them or a stranger, and kiss them. This might cause embarrassment or offence to the intended person, and their reaction may cause confusion and disappointment for the individual with autism. Perhaps they expected a more positive response: to be kissed or hugged back, as they saw happen with the couple on the street. Such examples demonstrate the complexities of socially appropriate behaviour. Individuals on the autism spectrum may need to be steered and supported by those around them to remember not to act on their impulses.

Several other characteristics of people with ASD interfere with the capacity to develop adult social relationships, which are necessary for developing sexual, intimate relationships.
Most significant is difficulty with social judgment, for example, missing nonverbal communication, poor eye contact, theory of mind (one’s ability to perceive how others think and feel, and how that relates to oneself) problems, and flexibility in responding to another person or situation. Lack of experience in peer relationships prevents the development of the usual ways through which adolescents learn about sexuality – from each other and from experimentation. Poor decision-making skills make it difficult to maintain the everyday details of a relationship, such as initiating dates, or remembering plans. Lack of flexibility and self-absorption, create significant areas of conflict in a potential relationship. Unregulated emotions, resulting in feelings that are too intense, or possibly misplaced, together, with a lack of awareness of the other’s response can prevent a relationship developing or quickly bring one to an end.

Many people with ASD have little self-awareness and do not understand their impact on others. People with ASD may have little knowledge about themselves. Part of what helps us create a sense of self is the ability to create an internal autobiography. People with ASD have difficulty in this area, as they frequently cannot describe their own emotions or are unaware of what they are feeling
or have difficulty controlling their emotional responses. As a result, many people with ASD lack the ability to understand themselves or respond to the social context around them. Self-advocacy, a crucial skill for maintaining one’s function in daily life, is something that can be very difficult for a person with ASD to learn. The ability to maintain personal safety without awareness of the environment or the behaviours of others can pose a significant danger.

People with ASD, either as a result of these difficulties or due to a true lack of social interest, can turn away from others into their own world. Self-absorption fosters another type of social disability. The need for aloneness or “down time” may be greater than the need to be with others, which may seriously jeopardize an attempt to relate to others in a more than superficial
manner. People with ASD frequently have little to no desire in sharing an all-consuming interest with others or attending to the interests of others, since there can be a lack of ability to detach from the area of interest without anxiety or distress.

The need for sameness and rigidity in daily routines may supersede one’s ability to flexibly respond to another person, for example, being unable to eat at another restaurant when only two specific restaurants are in that person’s repertoire.

Sensory sensitivities, such as the inability to tolerate touch or other physical sensations, sound sensitivities, or food texture issues can cause dating to be fraught with problems Such sensitivities can create intolerance of what may be considered part of the normal world. For example, sensitivity to sound may prevent someone with ASD from engaging in activities where airplanes may be heard overhead or babies may be heard crying. Sensitivity to touch can be especially difficult in relation to others, as those with ASD may not tolerate someone touching their skin or attempting to hug them. Heightened sensitivity may also affect the choice of clothes for someone with ASD, who may be un‐
able to wear clothes with sleeves or stripes made of particular materials,

Executive function impairments (impairments in decision-making skills, cognitive flexibility, impulse control, organizational skills, and planning) create another layer of social difficulty. Awareness of the passage of time may be compromised for someone with ASD and is an essential component of everyday function. Everyday memory problems or the ability to remember to plan and organize daily life activities can create social havoc. The ability to problem solve, make informed choices, or plan for the future becomes problematic.

All of these challenges are magnified when a person with ASD attempts to have an intimate emotional and perhaps sexual relationship. Intimacy is the sharing of emotional, cognitive, and physical aspects of oneself with those of another. A prerequisite for intimacy is the establishment of a firm sense of self-identity. Intimacy requires the flexibility to loosen one’s identity in order to feel the pleasure of merging with one’s partner in an emotional and physical connection. For all of the reasons above, a person with ASD may be unable to share with another or may be limited in his or her ability to do so.

There are various books which explain about forming relationships, for example the FPA book Talking together…about sex and relationships which describes how people make friends, become closer, become boyfriend and girlfriend, and eventually decide they would like to have sex with each other.

Fitzgerald, Harpur and Lawlor describe making friends at university, dating and how to be considerate towards other people’s relationships in their book Succeeding in college with Asperger syndrome. Luke Jackson provides some dating tips in his book, Freaks, geeks and Asperger syndrome, which have been suggested by his teenage sisters. There are also social skills or social groups in some countries which individuals with an ASD might like to attend.

People with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Crime

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have characteristics that could make them both more likely, and less likely, to break the law. On the one hand, they may have trouble with aggression, controlling strong emotions, and understanding other people’s perspectives. They may have challenging behaviours that could attract police attention. However, they also tend to find rules helpful and follow them precisely , and laws are simply rules that they could be expected to follow.

 


Several research studies have found either no link between autism and violent crime, or could not reach a conclusion about a link. A Danish study found that people with Asperger’s Syndrome (a form of high-functioning autism) were no more likely than the general population to commit a crime; those with classic autism and “atypical autism” were less likely than other people to commit crimes.
Research on violent criminals with high-functioning ASD found that the offenders may have deficits in moral reasoning, understanding other people’s perspectives, and emotional control. These deficits could, potentially, reduce their responsibility for crimes they commit in some cases.

However, as the number of individuals with autism has dramatically increased in the last twenty years, so too have autistic defendants in criminal proceedings in proportion to the increase in overall numbers. Such cases are extremely challenging to the criminal court system because autistic individuals’ motivations, perceptions, and intentions are often difficult for courts to understand. Questions of mental capacity and criminal intent are particularly challenging. Communication difficulties and problems in recognising social signals may place people with ASD at a disadvantage when questioned by police. They may not be able to tell if an investigator is lying or manipulating them. As a result, they may make a false confession or fail to protect their legal rights.

Similarly, courts may fail to understand what prison sentences mean for autistic individuals. The issue of autism in criminal courts is likely to grow in significance as the large population of autistic children become adults. The kinds of criminal cases range from assault to murder and from charges related to child pornography to possession of weapons without license. Many of these criminal cases highlight the complex and disturbing ways in which criminal law is interfacing with the world of autism.
Despite the public interest in people with autism as criminals, they are more likely to be victims, according to experts. Children with disabilities are about three times more likely to be the victims of abuse or neglect than nondisabled children. Children with autism are bullied more often than other children, although they can occasionally be bullies themselves, according to research by the Interactive Autism Network.

Most of the legal contact that individuals with autism have is as victims.

Helping people with learning disabilities stay safe

 

People with learning disabilities can often be victims of hate crime and harassment, whether this is in their home or communities or online, because they are seen as ‘different’ or ‘vulnerable’. . The Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities has created two easy read guides to help people with learning disabilities know how to keep safe. Staying Safe Out and About has information about keeping safe when people are out in their communities. Staying Safe on Social Media and Online tells people how to keep safe when using facebook, twitter and emails. 

 

hate crime

Disability and Learned Helplessness

Children with disabilities often develop ‘learned helplessness’. This means that they learn that they do not have to do things for themselves. Other people will always help them or do the task for them. They do not do as much for themselves as they could. (Throughout this post ‘children’ can be replaced by’young people’ or’adults’ but it would have been too clumsy to write it this way)

This can be because:
• they are given too much help, especially if it takes them a long time to do something or because they do things awkwardly
• because they are asked to do things that are too difficult for them
• because other people think that the child is not able to learn
• because they always get their own way by crying or making a fuss and so have never had to do things for themselves

Over time, the child can begin to see herself as a passive participant who is not able to be actively involved in learning. This presents an additional challenge for a teacher or parent who is trying to ignite the child’s desire to learn. Think carefully about whether you are contributing to learned helplessness – it’s very easy to do.

The points below are intended to stimulate learning and avoid the feeling that learning is pointless, someone else will always do i for you anyway.

1: Motivation
Nobody does anything without a reason that makes sense to them at the time. Motivation for learning comes from within a person. Almost all human beings have inborn drives:
• to discover and understand the world around us:
• for independence and sense of self,
• to connect socially with others (people on the autistic spectrum may not have this)

However, motivation can be stifled habituation (boredom develops with too much repetition) or by a feeling that it is pointless to make the effort as someone else will do it for us anyway, or by the nature of the task If something is too easy, it does not stimulate our natural curiosity; too difficult, and we will not be motivated to even attempt the task.

Children with severe disabilities are often presented with tasks that are either too easy or too difficult physically or cognitively. Often participation is done in a hand over hand fashion with little effort from the child. This can lead to passivity. Use hand over hand sparingly and think about whether it is useful and whether the child is engaged or just being moved about like a puppet

The task of parents, educators and therapists is to provide opportunities where children can be challenged and succeed and to prevent them from learning passive dependency.

It may be helpful to:
• Provide a range of assistive devices so children can accomplish physical tasks with less assistance
• Set up activities for the child to use a combination of knowledge and trial and error to achieve success. – and let them struggle to achieve.
• Use theme based learning which provides multiple experiences with a concentrated set of vocabulary and concepts without being monotonous.
• Provide opportunities for real making choices – enable the child to feel “In Control” –but go along with the choices. Making choices helps to increase cognitive engagement and reduce passivity. Begin with objects and move to pictures with and without voice-output. Provide multiple opportunities for meaningful choices throughout the day. Try presenting choices of actions instead of objects for increased motivation and more natural repetition. Offer choices for frequent short activities, or choices within an activity instead of choosing a whole activity.
• Provide children active experiences with early computer play where the child can direct the actions of the computer through simple choices and then observe the results. Use of 2 switches with different functions connected to computer, battery toys and/or simple voice output devices. Use of eye-pointing and eye-gaze frame for children who face physical

Attention and connection with others are often powerful motivators as they communicate a feeling of value or worth as a human being.
• Give children tasks that are truly appreciated by, or important to, someone else, and motivation is likely to be increased.
• Provide frequent opportunities for social interaction and connection with other people, while acknowledging that this is not a universal motivator, especially for some on the autistic spectrum.

2: Active Participation
Active participation is a great motivator but can be difficult for children who face severe multiple difficulties. They cruise through the day as a passive passenger, never needing to pay attention to where they are going or why. They are cared for and entertained regardless of their participation level. This happens sometimes in inclusive settings where the main objective is social exposure and it can happen in a specialist setting, where the routine may be so structured and predictable that there is little room for change or surprise. But think of ways in which it can happen for each individual.

The problem is that learning is less likely to take place when the child is in a passive role. The research is clear that active learning is vastly more effective for all children. So we need to think outside the box and create participation opportunities within activities.

While children cannot often have control of the sequence of the daily routine, there can be opportunities within routines that affect them – if you create them.

3: Multiple Modalities
Children with disabilities often have weaknesses in one or more areas of sensory processing. As they are not being able to move their bodies into position to see, hear or feel what they would like, this problem is compounded. Processing information is often easier and more effective when presented through a variety of modalities such as sight, sound touch and movement.

When communication is difficult, it is especially important to enhance the auditory component of language with other modalities.
It is important for children to experience language receptively that utilizes multiple modalities. Using picture communication symbols, voice-output and sign language as input can provide multi-sensory information for cognitive processing.

4: Natural Contexts
Learning takes place most effectively within the context of a meaningful event and not in an isolated drill and practice session. Help children relate what they already know to the new information – thus increasing
motivation and retention. The natural context provides meaningful opportunities for practice with natural variability to maintain interest.
When learning is presented in an isolated situation, out of the natural context, there is less for the child to associate with and fewer opportunities for practice. Augmentative systems need to be seen by the child as a natural means for communication. This is another reason that the systems must be used by others, while communicating to the child.
A variety of communicative functions need to be modelled in appropriate pragmatic contexts. Children’s attempts to communicate also need to be responded to and expanded upon using the same systems that the child is using.
• Provide activity specific vocabulary on augmentative communication devices.
• Focus on function – not ability to use a particular device

A corollary of natural context is natural consequences. It is important for all children to learn the natural consequences of actions, but all too often the natural consequences of the actions or choices of disabled children are prevented from happening by those who care for them. If you eat your packed lunch at 10 in the morning, you won’t have it at lunchtime; if you refuse to put you coat on you will feel cold. Obviously natural consequences have to be carefully managed so that a child is not put at risk. However, overprotection from them creates total passivity and prevents the growth and development of the individual.

It’s time to make hate crime against disabled people more visible

Hate crimes against people with disabilities are widespread and often involve extraordinary levels of sadism. The first step in combating these shameful incidents is an acknowledgment that they exist. They are often unacknowledged and unreported.

HateCrimes

In Scotland a disabled man who has twice been the victim of serious assaults has urged other hate crime victims to be brave and go to the police.Stephen Cruickshank, 56, was tipped out of his wheelchair and kicked and spat on in separate terrifying attacks.The ex-pub boss admits he did not report the incidents because he was so traumatised.

Stephen suffers from spinal neuropathy and he struggles to walk, relying on his wheelchair to get around.
Last year a group of thugs tipped him out and ran off with his chair as he lay helpless on the pavement in Rutherglen, Glasgow.
In another incident, he had his walking sticks kicked away by a group of men who then kicked and spat on him while Christmas shopping.Workmen came to his rescue and urged him to contact police – but he refused and headed home.

Four years ago, Stephen got a severe kicking in Glasgow city centre as he struggled into town to buy Christmas presents for his wife Morven and daughter Hayley, now 10.“The attack was so vicious, I thought I’d never get up again.”
But now Stephen, who’s involved in a Police Scotland-backed scheme aimed at helping hate crime victims, says it’s time to take on the bullies.

Earlier this month it was revealed that there had been a 12 per cent increase in the number of reported crimes against the disabled.
But Stephen claims that many more incidents go unreported.
He reckons only one in five disability hate crimes are ever investigated by police. “The scandal here isn’t the increase, it’s the fact that so few of us report these crimes.
“I talk to so many disabled people across Scotland and there are lots of reasons why they don’t report crimes committed against them.
“People are scared of reprisals because often their abusers aren’t strangers.“Disabled people can be victimised by their friends, or even family members.”

Stephen now works at a Third Party Reporting initiative, which is backed by Police Scotland.
Helpers submit reports of hate crime to police on the victim’s behalf.
Stephen spends several days each week supporting other disabled people.

In the USA in February 2010, Jennifer Daugherty, a 30-year-old, mentally challenged woman from Greensburg, Pa., was brutally people pretending to be her good friends. Holding her hostage for days, the perpetrators allegedly tortured her, shaving her head, binding her with Christmas decorations, beating her with a towel rack and vacuum cleaner, feeding her detergent, urine and various medications and then forcing her to write a suicide note, before stabbing her to death.
The sadistic attack on Daugherty was anything but unique. Still, few Americans are aware of the special vulnerability of people with emotional, intellectual and physical disabilities to extraordinary violence.

Thirty-two states have hate crime statutes to protect people who have disabilities, but 18 states still do not.
Attacks on people with disabilities are often overlooked because many people are not aware of the extreme vulnerability to maltreatment that accompanies such disorders as cerebral palsy, autism, multiple sclerosis, learning disabilities and mental illness — even though, according to anonymous victim accounts from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the 54 million Americans with disabilities experience serious violence at a rate nearly twice that of the general population. Their risk of being a victim of sexual assault is at least four times higher than that of people without disabilities. In 2008 alone, Americans with disabilities were victims of about 47,000 rapes, 79,000 robberies, 114,000 aggravated assaults and 476,000 simple assaults. Adding to the trauma of victimization, people with disabilities are much less likely than able-bodied victims to seek medical treatment for their injuries, often choosing, instead, to suffer in silence.

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The project Children with disabilities: targeted violence and hostility is currently looking at hostility, including violence, towards children with disabilities across the EU. It seeks to identify the legal and policy framework, as well as determine how information about such hostility is being collected. In addition, the project will look for examples of promising practices of how some Member States are addressing the problem. A report and comparative studies will be published this year (2014)

 

Does an oversupply of spaces or places for disabled people, particularly wheelchair users, contribute to abuse of the system?

Does the emphasis on provision for wheelchair users – who are less than 8 per cent of disabled people. – discriminate against others with a disability. (The majority of impairments are not visible) Click here for more numerical information about  people with disabilities in the UK.

What are your views? Have you experience or known about abuse of the system? What would improve provision for all disabled people and minimise abuse?

For example, were there too many spaces allocated for disabled people allocated for the football world cup, so that  those paces could never have been filled and police understand that some fans who bought tickets on the black market may have taken wheelchairs in order to get around normal security to enter the stadium. Do you think that these tickets were spare – or were people who really needed them being deprived of the opportunity to attend?

Amid the mad scramble for tickets, some are believed to have acquired concession passes intended for disabled fans. Police will now investigate whether the fans with wheelchairs in the disabled section did indeed require the assistance and have legitimate passes for the area.. Given that the requirement for a wheelchair does not always mean that an individual depends on its assistance all the time, it is a sensitive issue and one which officials are having to probe fully.

In the UK there is a legally government laid down ratio of normal car parking spaces to the minimum required number of disabled spaces provided. The minimum number is 2 marked disabled parking bays or 6% of the total number of bay must be reserved for marked out for disabled parking. Up to 34 bay the requirement is 2 disabled, above 34 bays 6% of the total number of bays must be marked disabled. Is this too many, about right or too few? Should elderly or infirm people, who are unlikely to be classified as disabled be able to use those spaces?

car park

The Daily Mail says ‘Hundreds of thousands of prime parking spaces in shopping centres are unused because of a legal obligation to provide four times as many disabled bays than are actually needed.Supermarkets, shopping centres and leisure centres must allocate up to 6 per cent of their parking bays for disabled badge holders  –  even though just 1.4 per cent of the population is registered disabled’

Does this mean that non-disabled drivers are more likely to use the spaces as they always seem to be empty?

 

And what about provision in your country? Are parking spaces or other spaces allocated soley for disabled people? If so, how do people qualify to use them? What provision is made in places of entertainment, public buildings or public transport? How is provision protected for disabled people?

 

 

Disability and pregnancy

Women with some disabilities sometimes risk their health or even their life to have a baby.  What issues does the story below raise for you about disability, sexuality, risk and parenthood? Will  this child be disadvantaged or lucky to have such a determined mother?

danska-trudna01

Dankinja Melek was born with no legs and one arm. Though the doctors told her that pregnancy could be dangerous for her, Melek will soon give birth to a child.

The doctors have told me that they are worried about me but I was not nervous, and I believe that it will be all right. I’m eight months pregnant and everything is fine – says Melek who is about to give birth to a boy. The boy currently  weighs three pounds, and Melek and her husband have decided to name him Semih Akin.

Melek says she got pregnant naturally. She added that at first she could not believe she was pregnant, and she made five or six tests to be sure. She admitted that the last two months have been very difficult. During pregnancy I obviously gained a few pounds and therefore generally lie down – Melek said. She is helped a lot to her husband Mehmet who is originally from Turkey. They met a few years ago. At first they were friends, and then they fell in love. They were married six years ago.

Originally prepared by: Bojana Minic

Translated and edited by: Matthew Griffiths

Source: magazine.invalidnost.net

 

Support needed for the struggle Can you respond?

I have my life ahead of me but I don’t really feel like I can cope with adapting and making do for the rest of my life. I’m 21 old and have cerebral palsy. I struggle with depression a lot and although I admire some other disabled people for what they have achieved, I don’t really feel that I can do the same.

cerebral palsy1This picture and the one below illustrate aspects of cerebral palsy. They do not relate to the writer in this post

Nobody really understands my pain, I find it hard to watch everyone around me go to university, get a job, have relationships or go travelling and take everyday things for granted while I plod along. I’ve thought about ending it all but my family and friends would never understand and probably resent me for it but to me, but I sometimes feel that I have no other option because all I see in front of me is a life of misery and hardship. I hate it too much to live with it. I was just wondering if there was any advice anyone out there could give me? Have you ever felt a similar way? I’ve been on antidepressants on and off for about 6 years as well as going through counselling and visiting psychiatrists – I don’t mean to unload on anyone but I would like a perspective from someone who knows how it feels. It would help to know that I’m not alone.